Prevalence and Factors Associated with Depression among High School Students in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

Authors

  • Lieu Xuan Cao National Academy of Education Management, Hanoi, Vietnam
  • Cong Minh Le University of Social Sciences and Humanities, Vietnam National University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
  • Diu Thi Thu Tran Nguyen Huu Canh High School, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
  • Vu Hoang Anh Nguyen Thu Duc Hospital, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
  • Vinh-Long Tran-Chi Ho Chi Minh City University of Education, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.55489/njcm.150720243843

Keywords:

depressive symptom, school adolescents, socio-demography, family, Vietnam

Abstract

Background: Depression in high school students is a common mental health problem and requires evaluation for early intervention. The study was carried out to determine the prevalence of depression symptoms and associated characteristics among high school students in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

Methods: This cross-sectional study enrolled participants between February 2022 and June 2022. The instrument utilized was a questionnaire of socioeconomic-demographic variables, educational characteristics, and the self-reported depression scale obtained from the Centre for Epidemiological Studies-Depression (CES-D).

Results: 384 high school students (165 males and 219 females) were questioned. The CES-D had a mean score of 17.3, with 57.6% of participants reporting depressed symptoms. The frequency was 63.3% among male students (OR = 1.84, 95% CI = 1.19-2.83, p = .005). Multiple logistic regression revealed that adolescents with poor health, weak friendships, limited participation in school activities, family problems, financial worries, and negative educational environments were significantly more likely to experience depressive symptoms (odds ratios ranging from 1.60 to 9.97, confidence intervals spanning 1.03 to 78.05, and p-values from <.001 to .044).

Conclusion: The study emphasized the necessity of health promotion programs that target mental health awareness, improve social support networks, and introduce stress reduction techniques in schools to reduce the prevalence of depression among teenagers in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

References

World Health Organization. Depression and Other Common Mental Disorders. World Health Organization, 2017.

Thapar A, Collishaw S, Pine DS and Thapar AK. Depression in adolescence. The Lancet. 2012; 379: 1056-67. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(11)60871-4 PMid:22305766

Nguyen DT, Dedding C, Pham TT, Wright P and Bunders J. Depression, anxiety, and suicidal ideation among Vietnamese secondary school students and proposed solutions: a cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health. 2013; 13: 1195. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-13-1195 PMid:24341792 PMCid:PMC3878548

Thai TT, Vu NLLT and Bui HHT. Mental health literacy and help-seeking preferences in high school students in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. School Mental Health: A Multidisciplinary Research and Practice Journal. 2020; 12: 378-87. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12310-019-09358-6

Gotlib IH, Miller JG, Borchers LR, et al. Effects of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Mental Health and Brain Maturation in Adolescents: Implications for Analyzing Longitudinal Data. Biological Psychiatry Global Open Science. 2023; 3: 912-8. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bpsgos.2022.11.002 PMid:36471743 PMCid:PMC9713854

Ho TTQ, Nguyen B and Ngoc N. Academic stress and depression among vietnamese adolescents: a moderated mediation model of life satisfaction and resilience. Current Psychology. 2022; 42: 1-11. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12144-022-03661-3 PMid:36277264 PMCid:PMC9574843

Hankin BL, Young JF, Abela JRZ, et al. Depression from childhood into late adolescence: Influence of gender, development, genetic susceptibility, and peer stress. Journal of Abnormal Psychology. 2015; 124: 803-16. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1037/abn0000089 PMid:26595469 PMCid:PMC4662048

Sheeber LB, Davis B, Leve C, Hops H and Tildesley E. Adolescents' relationships with their mothers and fathers: Associations with depressive disorder and subdiagnostic symptomatology. Journal of Abnormal Psychology. 2007; 116: 144-54. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-843X.116.1.144 PMid:17324025 PMCid:PMC2249923

Reijntjes A, Kamphuis JH, Prinzie P and Telch MJ. Peer victimization and internalizing problems in children: A meta-analysis of longitudinal studies. Child Abuse & Neglect. 2010; 34: 244-52. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2009.07.009 PMid:20304490

Lund C, Breen A, Flisher AJ, et al. Poverty and common mental disorders in low and middle income countries: A systematic review. Social Science & Medicine. 2010; 71: 517-28. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2010.04.027 PMid:20621748 PMCid:PMC4991761

Weist MD, Rubin M, Moore E, Adelsheim S and Wrobel G. Mental Health Screening in Schools. Journal of School Health. 2007; 77: 53-8. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1746-1561.2007.00167.x PMid:17222155

Loc G. HCM City high schools begin to take career counselling seriously. Viet Nam News, 2019.

ActionAid Vietnam. Survey on the Prevention of Sexual Harassment among Teenagers in Ke Sach and Binh Tan District. ActionAid, 2019.

Daniel WW and Cross CL. Biostatistics: A Foundation for Analysis in the Health Sciences. 11th ed.: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2018.

Radloff LS. The CES-D Scale: A Self-Report Depression Scale for Research in the General Population. Applied Psychological Measurement. 1977; 1: 385-401. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1177/014662167700100306

Nguyen DT, Dedding C, Pham TT, Wright P, Bunders J. Depression, anxiety, and suicidal ideation among Vietnamese secondary school students and proposed solutions: a cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health. 2013 Dec;13:1-10. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-13-1195 PMid:24341792 PMCid:PMC3878548

World Medical Association. World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki: Ethical Principles for Medical Research Involving Human Subjects. JAMA. 2013; 310: 2191-4. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2013.281053 PMid:24141714

American Psychological Association. Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct. American Psychological Association, 2017.

Karki A, Thapa B, Pradhan PMS and Basel P. Depression, anxiety and stress among high school students: A cross-sectional study in an urban municipality of Kathmandu, Nepal. PLOS Global Public Health. 2022; 2: e0000516. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgph.0000516 PMid:36962418 PMCid:PMC10022099

Nakie G, Segon T, Melkam M, Desalegn GT and Zeleke TA. Prevalence and associated factors of depression, anxiety, and stress among high school students in, Northwest Ethiopia, 2021. BMC Psychiatry. 2022; 22: 739. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12888-022-04393-1 PMid:36443717 PMCid:PMC9707065

Piccinelli M and Wilkinson G. Gender differences in depression: Critical review. British Journal of Psychiatry. 2000; 177: 486-92. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1192/bjp.177.6.486 PMid:11102321

Sun Y, Zhong Y, Sun W, Chu L, Long J and Fan XW. More prevalent and more severe: gender differences of depressive symptoms in Chinese adolescents. Frontiers in Public Health. 2023; 11: 1167234. Doi: https://doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2023.1167234 PMid:37521991 PMCid:PMC10372346

Yildirim I, Ergene T and Munir K. High Rates of Depressive Symptoms among Senior High School Students Preparing for National University Entrance Examination in Turkey. International Journal on School Disaffection. 2007; 4: 35-44. Doi: https://doi.org/10.18546/IJSD.04.2.07 PMid:25580092 PMCid:PMC4288470

Zhang J, Liu D, Ding L and Du G. Prevalence of depression in junior and senior adolescents. Frontiers in Psychiatry. 2023; 14: 1182024. Doi: https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2023.1182024 PMid:38152357 PMCid:PMC10752610

Peng X, Liang S, Liu L, et al. Prevalence and associated factors of depression, anxiety and suicidality among Chinese high school E-learning students during the COVID-19 lockdown. Current Psychology. 2023; 42: 30653-64. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12144-021-02512-x PMid:35103039 PMCid:PMC8791692

Raniti M, Rakesh D, Patton GC and Sawyer SM. The role of school connectedness in the prevention of youth depression and anxiety: a systematic review with youth consultation. BMC Public Health. 2022; 22: 2152. Doi:https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-022-14364-6 PMid:36424575 PMCid:PMC9694921

Eime RM, Young JA, Harvey JT, Charity MJ and Payne WR. A systematic review of the psychological and social benefits of participation in sport for children and adolescents: informing development of a conceptual model of health through sport. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity. 2013; 10: 98. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1186/1479-5868-10-135

Santos RMS, Mendes CG, Sen Bressani GY, et al. The associations between screen time and mental health in adolescents: a systematic review. BMC Psychology. 2023; 11: 127. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1186/s40359-023-01166-7 PMid:37081557 PMCid:PMC10117262

Shi J, Tao Y, Yan C, et al. A study on the correlation between family dynamic factors and depression in adolescents. Frontiers in Psychiatry. 2023; 13: 1025168. Doi: https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2022.1025168 PMid:36762296 PMCid:PMC9902595

Wang E, Zhang J, Peng S and Zeng B. The Association Between Family Function and Adolescents' Depressive Symptoms in China: A Longitudinal Cross-Lagged Analysis. Frontiers in Psychiatry. 2021; 12: 744976. Doi: https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2021.744976 PMid:34975563 PMCid:PMC8718401

Zhang J, Buchanan GJR, Piehler TF, Gunlicks-Stoessel M and Bloomquist ML. The Relationship Between Parent-Adolescent Conflict Dynamics and Adolescent Depression. Journal of Child and Family Studies. 2022; 31: 2535-44. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-022-02318-w

Moksnes UK, Løhre A, Lillefjell M, Byrne DG and Haugan G. The Association Between School Stress, Life Satisfaction and Depressive Symptoms in Adolescents: Life Satisfaction as a Potential Mediator. Social Indicators Research. 2016; 125: 339-57. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11205-014-0842-0

Downloads

Published

2024-07-01

How to Cite

1.
Cao LX, Le CM, Tran DTT, Nguyen VHA, Tran-Chi V-L. Prevalence and Factors Associated with Depression among High School Students in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Natl J Community Med [Internet]. 2024 Jul. 1 [cited 2024 Jul. 21];15(07):526-32. Available from: https://njcmindia.com/index.php/file/article/view/3843

Issue

Section

Original Research Articles