National Journal of Community Medicine 2022-11-30T12:21:42+0530 Prakash Patel Open Journal Systems <p align="Justify">The National Journal of Community Medicine is a peer-reviewed open-access journal. It has a wide circulation amongst the health professionals, researchers, teaching faculties, and postgraduates in the specialty of Community Medicine and public health. The main objective of the journal is to promote wider dissemination of the research conducted by researchers in the fields of public health and community medicine.</p> Stress, Depression and Coping in Tuberculosis Patients- A Hospital Based Study 2022-09-29T06:40:48+0530 Harikrishna Rajeev Pradeep Tarikere Satyanarayana <p><strong>Background: </strong>Tuberculosis (TB) often leaves its impact physically, socially and mentally on patients. Coping strategies refer to the specific efforts, both behavioural and psychological, that people employ to master, tolerate, reduce or minimize stressful events. The study was started to find out the prevalence of Depression in Tuberculosis patients, to find out the effect of Stress and Depression on Coping strategies in patients diagnosed with Tuberculosis.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>The study was a Cross sectional study carried out for period of two years from January 2020 till December 2021. Study was done at District tuberculosis center, SNR Hospital, Kolar. Sample size calculated as 288 based on previous literature search. All data entered in Microsoft office excel sheet, analyzed using SPSS v 22(IBM Corp, USA). Descriptive statistics applied where ever needed and to compare between groups t-test, ANOVA was used and to check for association between factors Chi-square applied.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Out of 302 Tuberculosis patients, 29.1% belonged to 41-50 years, 72.2% belonged to Male gender, 77.5% resided in rural area, 24.5% were unemployed, 4% had HIV comorbidity, 46.4% had Diabetes Mellitus. 54.3% had Moderate Depression. Age, Gender, HIV status, Diabetes status, Tb Patients who Perceived TB stigma, BMI, Perceived Family Support, type of family and occupation were few Clinico-social factors which were statistically significant for Perceived stress scores.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Tuberculosis is chronic infectious disease where mental health evaluation is neglected, Better management of these psychiatric morbidities should be educated by the treating primary health care doctors and DOTS providers which will have direct or indirect impact on improving treatment adherence, illness perception and patient coping skills.</p> 2022-11-30T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2022 Harikrishna Rajeev, Pradeep Tarikere Satyanarayana Social Determinants and Risk Factors Associated with Multi-Drug Resistant Tuberculosis Among Tuberculosis Patients in Tamilnadu – A Case-Control Study 2022-10-07T04:35:08+0530 S Suganathan Soundararajan Pavithra GB Preeti P Nisha B Srinivasan Vengadassalapathy Ruma Dutta Gomathy Parasuraman <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: The emergence of Multi-drug Resistant Tuberculosis (MDR- TB) is a challenge for global control and prevention mainly in developing countries. Socio-economic conditions, social vulnerability, and behavioral factors to be considered as risk factors in identifying MDR-TB. The objective of the study was to identify independent risk factors of MDR-TB among Tuberculosis patients.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: An unmatched Case-control study was conducted from January 2021 to June 2021 among tuberculosis (TB) patients registered under RNTCP in Kanchipuram district during the study period. ‘Cases’ were consecutive MDR TB patients aged 15 and older, diagnosed with MDR-TB. ‘Controls’ were patients aged 15 and older, diagnosed with drug susceptible TB. Data was collected using pretested semi-structured questionnaire with face-to- face interview. Univariate and multi-variate analysis were used to identify associated determinants of MDR-TB.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: A total of 80 subjects, 20 cases and 60 controls (1:3) were recruited. Mean age of ‘cases’ was 32±9.3 years, and for controls was 31± 8.3 years. Multiple logistic regression analysis identified five significant risk factors for the occurrence of MDR TB as follows: passive smoking [OR = 8.449, 95% CI (6.791–30.27)], overcrowding [OR= 2.062,95% CI (1.004-4.005)], low socio-economic status [OR=11.362,95% CI (10.312-35.174)] and previous TB treatment [OR =13.72 with 95% CI (8.599-35.118)]. Inadequate ventilation [OR=4.6434(.217-13.906)]</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: To reduce the burden of drug-resistance, these risk factors can be used as screening tool in identifying individuals with MDR-TB in resource limited settings.</p> 2022-11-30T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2022 Dr S Suganathan Soundararajan, Dr. Pavithra G.B, Dr Preeti P, Dr Nisha B, Dr.Srinivasan Vengadassalapathy, Dr Ruma Dutta, Dr.Gomathy Parasuraman A Study on Prevalence of Selected Mental Disorders (Anxiety, Depression, Dementia) Among Residents of Old Age Home in Jabalpur City, Madhya Pradesh, India 2022-10-01T04:13:43+0530 Ketulkumar Chaudhari Neeraj Rai Rajesh Tiwari <p>Ageing is a normal phenomenon and an inescapable process. According to W.H.O. Worldwide over 20% of adults aged 60 and over suffer from a mental or neurological disorder and according to the National Mental Health Survey of India (2015-16) the prevalence of mental disorders in geriatric population in the country is 10.90%. Thus, this study aims to assess anxiety, depression and cognitive disorders among persons living in OAH and to explore the various factors associated with it. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in OAH Jabalpur. All residents of OAH were included in the study so no need for sampling. The sample size was 73. A Predesigned semi-structured Questionnaire was used which comprised of the socio-demographic profile with using GAD-7, GDS-15 &amp; MMSE-30 for screening of psychiatric morbidity. Data analysis was done by using IBM SPSS-21. The result shows the mean age of the study subject was 72.14 ±7.482. The prevalence of Anxiety was 19.2%, prevalence of depression was 41.1% and prevalence of cognitive impairment was 23.3%. In this study it was found out that older adults suffering from anxiety, depression and cognitive impairment, most of older adults was widowed and there is a need to provide psychological support, a positive environment and proper care to improve mental health.</p> 2022-11-30T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2022 Dr Ketulkumar Chaudhari, Dr Neeraj Rai, Dr Rajesh Tiwari Neck Circumference as A Screening Tool to Predict Obesity: A Cross Sectional Study in Coastal Karnataka, India 2022-10-13T06:32:18+0530 Shyamsundar Shreedhar Prashant M Naik Geeta Naveenkumar Havale Manjula MN <p><strong>Background</strong>: Obesity is a disease of public health importance impacting most body systems. It leads to a range of NCD’s. BMI is commonly used to classify overweight and obesity in adults. Others measurements such as WC and WHR are considered as acceptable measures of obesity. However in community settings these can be a time consuming method. Instead Neck circumference (NC) can be used to screen for obesity.</p> <p><strong>Methodology</strong>: A cross sectional study conducted among 310 study participants in rural field practice area of Government medical college, Karwar. Socio demographic characteristics were collected using pre designed semi structured questionnaire and anthropometric measurements as per standard guidelines. Data analyzed using Epi-info 7.2 version. Statistical tests like Pearson’s correlation coefficient were used to assess correlation. NC cut off values were obtained from ROC.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: In our study, the correlation of NC with BMI was highly correlated among both males(r=0.529), and females (r=0.565). Kappa statistics depicted moderate agreement with BMI [males (κ = 0.512) ; females (κ = 0.496) and NC in the study population. The cut-off values obtained for neck circumference using ROC curve for males (35.5cm) and females (31.5cm) were statically significant associated in comparison to BMI to determine obesity in both males (χ2 = 58.57, and females (χ2 = 21.54).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>This study concluded that men with NC ≥ 35.5 cms and females with NC ≥ 31.5 cms are to be considered obese. The sensitivity of this screening test for these cut-off’s was 79.83% and 82.4% in males and females respectively.</p> 2022-11-30T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2022 Dr Naveenkumar Havale, Shyamsundar Shreedhar, Prashant M Naik, Geeta, Manjula M N Public Knowledge and Belief Regarding Antibiotic Use and Antimicrobial Resistance in Qatar 2022-10-11T06:16:52+0530 Nesiya Hassan Jibin Kunjavara Kamaruddeen Mannethodi Kalpana Singh Annamma Varghese Bincymary Varughese Jeena Rajan Thomas Hamza Mohamad Salhab Noor Bibi Khial Bad Shah Noreen Chua Vinluan Marivic Arroyo Nonato Raed Hashim Alghazawi Vipin Augusthy Rajvir Singh <p><strong>Background: </strong>Antibiotics act as a therapeutic weapon in eradicating pathogens. Antibiotics are the most common group of drugs misused for self-medication. This is a global public health concern and is one of the major contributing factors to antibiotic resistance (ABR).</p> <p><strong>Objective: </strong>This study aimed to assess the knowledge and beliefs of the public in Qatar regarding appropriate antibiotic use and antimicrobial resistance.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>A cross-sectional research design was used to collect the information from the participants based on an adapted questionnaire from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the World Health Organization (WHO) between September – November 2018. The study enrolled 1000 participants who visited two large emergency departments (ED) of public hospitals in Qatar.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The mean knowledge and belief scores were 55.07±15.87 and 66.57±23.13 respectively. 42% of the participants had moderate knowledge regarding antibiotic and antimicrobial resistance. The majority of the participants (64.8%) believed that antibiotics fight against bacteria and viruses. The educational level significantly influences the belief of the participants. Graduates possess a higher belief score of 11.75±12.5 (P=0.001) compared to others.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The key findings of this study highlighted the existing gap in knowledge among the public. A community-based health education program should be launched to raise citizen responsibility to use antibiotics judiciously.</p> 2022-11-30T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2022 Nesiya Hassan Risk Factors of Breast Cancer Among Women – A Cross-Sectional Study in Selected Slums of Bhubaneswar City, India 2022-10-07T04:35:43+0530 Ria Ganguly Lipilekha Patnaik Trilochan Sahu <p><strong>Background: </strong>Breast carcinoma is the most commonly diagnosed cancer (27·7%) and the leading cause of death (23·5%) among women in India as per GLOBOCAN 2018. There is considerable evidence that breast cancer risk is related to certain modifiable and nonmodifiable lifestyle factors. Thus, this study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of risk factors of breast cancer in women of age group 18-70 years in selected urban slums.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> This community based cross sectional study was conducted in selected 13 urban slums of Bhubaneswar which comes under the field practice area of Department of Community Medicine, Bhubaneswar, IMS and SUM Hospital Bhubaneswar, Odisha from september 2018 to october 2020. Data were entered to an excel sheet and SPSS software version 20 was used for analysis.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Among the total population of 300, the mean age of the study subjects was 42 <u>+</u> 12 years ranging from 20 to 69 years. Married women in the study were 95.3%. Including both modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors, 57% of the participants were having risk factors of breast cancer.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Women need to be aware of both modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors for breast cancer to adopt appropriate practices for prevention of Breast cancer.</p> 2022-11-30T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2022 Ria Ganguly, Lipilekha Patnaik, Trilochan Sahu Birth Preparedness and Complication Readiness Among Pregnant Women Attending an Urban Health Centre in Surat, India 2022-10-21T04:14:52+0530 Geeta Patel Harshad Patel Anjali Modi Abhishek Mukherjee J K Kosambiya <p><strong>Background: </strong> Birth preparedness is strategy to reduce MMR. It includes knowledge of key danger signs; identification of: birth place; birth attendant, fund, transport and compatible blood donor for emergency use. This study aims to explore birth preparedness in Surat and determine factors associated with it.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>Study conducted facility based cross-sectional study among 310 antenatal women at Urban Health Training Centre attached to Government Medical College, Surat, Gujarat. Predesigned, semi- structured, pretested questionnaire was used for data collection after informed written consent.</p> <p><strong>Result: </strong>A total of 310 women participated in the study. Mean age of participants was 22.9<u>+</u> 3.6 years. Almost one-third (30.3%) participants were illiterate. Almost six-tenth (61.9%) participants were involved in unskilled or semi-skilled work and two-fifth (38.1%) participants were homemakers. Majority of participants (96.7%) were registered in first trimester. Most known factor during pregnancy as danger sign was bleeding (81.9%). BPACR index was calculated as ∑Indicator/7 which was observed to be 62.3%. There was statistically significant association between awareness about health problems during pregnancy and type of family.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Raising awareness regarding components of BPACR among antenatal women will help to reduce morbidity and mortality in antenatal women and achieve the sustainable development goal.</p> 2022-11-30T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2022 Geeta Patel, Harshad Patel, Anjali Modi, Abhishek Mukherjee, J K Kosambiya Assessment Of Quality of Life Among PLHIV Attending the FIART Clinic of Bankura Sammilani Medical College, West Bengal 2022-10-28T04:05:28+0530 Surya Prakash Dey Tridibes Bhattacharya Aditya Prasad Sarkar <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: People Living with HIV (PLHIV) are facing increasing Physical, Social, Psychological challenges pertaining to the disease as life expectancy is gradually rising. This study was conducted to assess the quality of life (QOL) in respect of various domains among PLHIV and to find out its’ associated factors.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>An institute-based descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted in FIART clinic of Bankura Sammilani Medical College &amp; Hospital among 99 PLHIV selected by systematic random sampling technique from 1st July 2019 to 30th June 2020. Data were collected by interviewing PLHIV aged within 18-60 years using semi-structured questionnaire incorporating WHO Quality of Life for HIV (WHOQOL-HIV) - BREF version to assess the QOL of the study subjects in various domains.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: 44% participants rated their QOL as good, while 79% satisfied with their health. QOL score was found highest in physical domain (median- 17.0, IQR- 4) and lowest in spiritual domain (median- 14.0, IQR- 2). Overall QOL was significantly higher in males, resident of rural area, individuals belonging to joint family and higher socio-economic class. Multiple linear regression revealed statistically significant relation of overall QOL with residence, type of family and socio-economic status<strong>.</strong></p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Psychological and spiritual well-being of PLHIVs are an area of concern and requires clinical attention.</p> 2022-11-30T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2022 Tridibes Bhattacharya, Dr. Surya Prakash Dey, Aditya Prasad Sarkar Facilitators And Barriers to Hypertension Control, Fol-lowing the Implementation of India Hypertension Con-trol Initiative (IHCI) In Thiruvananthapuram District – A Qualitative Study 2022-10-28T04:04:32+0530 Balamurali V Lavanya P Kumar Sumit <p><strong>Background: </strong>India Hypertension Control Initiative (IHCI) was launched in 2017 to improve the control rate of hypertensive patients on treatment. Thiruvananthapuram was one among the 26 districts in the country where the program was initially rolled out.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>A qualitative cross-sectional study was conducted among stakeholders involved in the implementation of IHCI of Thiruvananthapuram district. Purposive sampling method was used for selection of samples. A total of 25 in-depth interviews were carried out.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The major facilitators which propelled hypertension control were uniformity in drug prescription, proper documentation of patient data along with indicators for measuring control rates and defaulter tracking mechanism. Clinical inertia among doctors, increased workload and sending of bystanders for monthly follow-up are the major barriers that affected hypertension control.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>Replication of good practices performed under IHCI into similar health settings or programs can be encouraged. Apart from the few barriers seen at the program level, the already existing barriers at the health system level need to be addressed immediately through efforts such as e-Health incorporation, trainings .</p> 2022-11-30T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2022 Balamurali V, Lavanya. P, Kumar Sumit Comparison Of Artificial Neural Network and Decision Tree Methods for Predicting the Maternal Outcome in A Tertiary Care Hospital in Odisha, India 2022-10-28T04:41:16+0530 Nihar Ranjan Panda Jitendra Kumar Pati Tapasi Pati Soumya Satpathy Ruchi Bhuyan <p><strong>Background:</strong> This study used an artificial neural network (ANN) and a decision tree to predict maternal outcomes and their major determinants. An artificial neural network (ANN) and a decision tree were used in this study to determine maternal outcomes and their significant determinants.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: Data was gathered from 955 pregnant women at a tertiary care hospital in Bhubaneswar, Odisha. A popular machine learning algorithm, artificial neural networks (ANN), was used to predict maternal outcomes and their determinants<strong>.</strong></p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> in the bivariate analysis, we found gestational age is significantly associated with maternal outcome (p=&lt;0.001). The accuracy of the ANN model and decision tree was 0.882 and 0.823, respectively. Based on the variable importance of ANN, the significant determinants of maternal outcome were birth weight, systolic blood pressure, hemoglobin, gestational age, age of mother, diastolic blood pressure etc.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: This model can be utilized in future for Proper precautions and medical checkups required during the maternal period to avoid a negative maternal outcome.</p> 2022-11-30T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2022 Nihar Ranjan Panda, Jitendra Kumar Pati, Tapasi Pati, Soumya Satpathy, Ruchi Bhuyan Nutritional Status of Pre-School Children Attending Anganwadi Centres in Chittoor, Andhra Pradesh, India 2022-10-17T10:05:51+0530 Sravana Deepthi C Erigela Mallikarjuna Reddy Sirshendu Chaudhuri Rizwana Syed <p><strong>Context/Background:</strong> Malnutrition among children is a long-standing public health problem in India.</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To assess the nutritional status of pre-school children and to identify the socio-demographic determinants of malnutrition.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> In this community-based cross-sectional study, 194 under-five children were recruited from rural and urban areas of Chittoor district, Andhra Pradesh. Anthropometric measurements including weight, and mid upper arm circumference were measured and age standardized weight-for-age (WAZ), height-for-age (HAZ), and weight-for-height (WHZ) were calculated. The proportion of under nutrition (WAZ &lt;-2 standard deviation (SD)), stunting (HAZ &lt;-2SD), and wasting (WHZ &lt;-2SD) were calculated along with the determinants.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The mean age of the participants was 40.5 months (SD- 9.1 months), 101 (52.1%) were from rural areas, and 96 (495%) female. The median z-scores for WAZ, HAZ, and WHZ were -1.22, -0.98, and -0.78respectively. The HAZ values were significantly low in- urban children (-0.81; 95% CI: <strong>-</strong>0.4, <strong>-</strong>1.21), among the non-Hindu children (-0.92; 95% CI: -0.35, -1.5). The overall prevalence of underweight, stunting, and wasting were- 13.4% (95% CI: 8.5%, 18.3%), 23.7% (95% CI: 17.6%, 29.8%), and 19.6% (95% CI: 11.9%, 25.3%) respectively. There were a total 16 (8.3%, 95% CI: 5.6%, 11.0%) severely malnourished children. Urban residence (OR 6.75; 95% CI: 3.03 – 15.04) was a strong predictor of stunting.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Malnutrition remains to be a public health problem in this area. Strengthening of existing program implementation coupled with evidence generation on malnutrition can be the key strategies in combating malnutrition.</p> 2022-11-30T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2022 C Sravana Deepthi, Erigela Mallikarjuna Reddy, Sirshendu Chaudhuri, Syed Rizwana Depression Among PLHIV On ART, Attending Drop-In Centre Run by Positive People Network: A Cross Sectional Study in Surat, India 2022-10-20T07:11:44+0530 Rohan Kosambiya Manvendra Singh Rathore Kritagnasinh Vaghela Dhaval J Patel Shivangi Inamdar <p><strong>Background:</strong> Mental Health Issues are not adequately addressed when it the comes to the burden of non-communicable disorders among PLHIV on ART. PLHIV often suffer from depression and anxiety during their quest to adjust to the diagnosis and face the difficulties of living with a chronic illness, of which permanent cure is yet to be discovered.</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To assess depression among HIV positive beneficiaries registered with Network of Surat People Living with HIV (NSP+) in Surat.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A cross sectional study was conducted among 30 PLHIV on ART from Network of Surat People Living with HIV (NSP+). Becks Depression Inventory was applied to assess depression.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The mean BDI score among male participants was 25.6 (± 11.39) and that of female participants was 23 (± 12), nine male participants were classified as having moderate depression, three as severe, and 2 as extreme depression. Among females four participants were found to having mild mood disturbance while four were classified as having moderate depression, whereas only one participant was classified as having extreme depression (score of 53). Pearson’s correlation between CD4 count and BDI score was found to be -0.35.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Though majority of the participants are in WHO clinical stage 1, yet all the participants had borderline or extreme depression. Males had lower CD4 count, higher proportion of OI and higher mean score of BDI. Lower the CD4 count higher the severity of depression.</p> 2022-11-30T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2022 Rohan Kosambiya, Manvendra Singh Rathore, Kritagnasinh Vaghela, Dhaval J. Patel, Shivangi Inamdar Women's Empowerment: Bringing Women’s Rights and Health into Focus- A Comparative Analysis of State Fact Sheets of National Family Health Survey (NFHS)-4 & 5 2022-10-31T12:03:31+0530 Chhandasri Mishra Shivangi Dash Anuj Kumar Pandey Siddharth Sekhar Mishra <p><strong>Objectives: </strong>Women’s empowerment is a crucial factor for economic and social growth. India being committed to making women contribute equally to the growth and development of the country by 2030 (under Sustainable Development Goal-5), this study aimed to highlight the major shortcomings in the domain of Women’s health and other social and economic growth parameters.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: For this study, data related to various health and non-health parameters were used from largest survey in India i.e., National Family Health Survey factsheets. In reference to “the Global Gender Gap measure introduced by the World Economic Forum, the indicators have also been classified as 4 broad themes, for each of which, indicators were selected from NFHS factsheet for analysis, interpretation and reporting.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: With 2.9% increase in the child sex ratio from 991 to 1022 females per 1000 males over the last two rounds of NFHS indicates a significant societal shift in the country. Out of 21 selected indicators, 4 parameters namely Screening test for cervical and breast cancer, Marriage of women before 18 years of age and Anaemia amongst women have shown a negative change over the past 5 years. Changes in the rural areas are more significant as compared with that of Urban areas.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The study found that although, we have made some progress on the metrics around health, education, economic and social empowerment parameters, to get an adequate assessment of developments, we need to expand the basket of indicators and analyse change in them holistically.</p> 2022-11-30T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2022 Chhandasri Mishra, Shivangi Dash , Anuj Kumar Pandey, Siddharth Sekhar Mishra Does BCG Or MMR Or Routine Vaccination Coverage Protect Against COVID Infection And Mortality In India? 2022-09-30T10:54:55+0530 Shrinivasa Basavewowdanadoddi Marinaik Adhin Bhaskar Ponnuraja Chinnaiyan Padmapriyadarsini Chandrasekaran <p><strong>Background</strong>: The routine vaccinations and acquired immunity by other viral infections were believed to be acting as a protective factor against severe COVID-19 outbreaks in some countries. This study is overviewing the relationship of routine BCG, MMR vaccinations and reported MMR disease outbreak with reported COVID-19 infection across the Indian states.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: The data on vaccination coverage and respiratory disease infection was obtained from Universal immunization program and Integrated disease surveillance project reports. spearman rank Correlation has been used to assess the relationship of routine vaccination and COVID-19 infection.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The result did not find any relationship of routine vaccination with BCG and MMR or exposure to MMR infection on COVID-19 infections in India.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The exposure to BCG or MMR vaccination did not have a non specific protection against COVID-19 infection. The results imply that a larger proportion of the Indian population is still vulnerable to COVID-19 infection.</p> 2022-11-30T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2022 B M Shrinivasa , Adhin Bhaskar, C Ponnuraja , C Padmapriyadarsini Global Health and War 2022-11-30T05:01:15+0530 Prakash Patel <p>Abstract not required</p> 2022-11-30T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2022