National Journal of Community Medicine <p align="Justify">The National Journal of Community Medicine is a peer-reviewed open-access journal. It has a wide circulation amongst the health professionals, researchers, teaching faculties, and postgraduates in the specialty of Community Medicine and public health. The main objective of the journal is to promote wider dissemination of the research conducted by researchers in the fields of public health and community medicine.</p> Medsci Publications en-US National Journal of Community Medicine 0976-3325 <p>Author/s retain the copyright of their article, with first publication rights granted to Medsci Publications.</p> Virtual Gaming as A Contemporary Research Trend for Mental Health Professionals <p>As technology continues to be a part of our life, online gaming has claimed the hearts of millions of people as a favourite leisure activity. Among them online role-playing game provides people the opportunity to play a desired role, be it a king, princess or warrior<strong>. </strong>This article aimed to provide an insight into what role-playing game is, and why it has become so popular in recent years, with the help of existing literature. This article also attempted to point out the need to research more in the field of gaming as the existing literature is not sufficient to cover the vastness of the topic. The digitalization of games from physical form to online form has changed the way games has been viewed, played, and understood. Due to the popularity of online games, there is a significant change in the research around online games, especially role-playing games. There is still more research needed in Indian context about online games as it has become a popular source of entertainment throughout all the ages and also become a huge source of economy.</p> Anganabha Baruah Copyright (c) 2023 Anganabha Baruah 2023-02-28 2023-02-28 14 02 134 138 10.55489/njcm.140220232784 A Community-Based Trial on The Comparison of Efficacy, Safety and Cost Effectiveness of Ferrous Sulphate and Ferrous Ascorbate for Anaemia in Pregnancy In Madhya Pradesh, India <p><strong>Background</strong>: Anaemia has significant impact on health of the fetus as well as that of mother. Increased need of iron during pregnancy especially after 2nd trimester makes iron supplementation mandatory. Ferrous ascorbate is known to exist intact inside the gastrointestinal tract due to the stable chelation of iron with ascorbate. This compound does not dissociate due to any of the food inhibitors. The aim is to study the effectiveness of Ferrous Ascorbate and Ferrous sulphate in terms of compliance and cost effectiveness of management of anaemia in pregnancy.</p> <p><strong>Methodology</strong>: Study design: Quasi Experimental study, Study area: District Vidisha, Study participants: Pregnant women of first trimester registered during the study period in the selected Anganwadis/ Gram Arogya Kendra (GAK), Sample size: 240 antenatal mothers.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Baseline mean haemoglobin was 11.31±1.05 gm/dl. The mean increase in Ferrous Sulphate was 0.55 gm/dl, and in Ferrous ascorbate was 1.27 gm/dl. Ferrous Sulphate was less compliant than Ferrous ascorbate, and has higher efficacy and lesser side effects. Only Rs. 10.2 additional cost per antenatal mothers for increase of ≥1gm% in Hb will be borne by government if Ferrous Sulphate is replaced by Ferrous Ascorbate.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: Study results show statistically significant difference in rise of haemoglobin amongst the antenatal mothers consuming Ferrous ascorbate over Ferrous Sulphate.</p> Manju Toppo Jeewan S Meena Devendra Gour Mugdha Kamble Keerthana S Ankit Chandak Sarjan Singh Nainshree Bhunjiya Ravindra Singh Copyright (c) 2023 Manju Toppo, Jeewan S Meena, Devendra Gour, Mugdha Kamble, Keerthana S, Ankit Chandak , Sarjan Singh, Nainshree Bhunjiya, Ravindra Singh 2023-02-28 2023-02-28 14 02 74 81 10.55489/njcm.140220232583 A Study to Analyse Covid-19 Outbreak Using Multiple Linear Regression: A Supervised Machine Learning Approach <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Globally, COVID-19 have impacted people's quality of life Machine learning have recently become popular for making predictions because of their precision and adaptability in identifying diseases. This study aims to identify significant predictors for daily active cases and to visualise trends in daily active, positive cases, and immunisations.</p> <p><strong>Material and methods: </strong>This paper utilized secondary data from Covid-19 health bulletin of Uttarakhand and multiple linear regression as a part of supervised machine learning is performed to analyse dataset.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Multiple Linear Regression model is more accurate in terms of greater score of R<sup>2 </sup>(<sub>=</sub>0.90) as compared to Linear Regression model with R<sup>2</sup><sub>=</sub>0.88. The daily number of positive, cured, deceased cases are significant predictors for daily active cases (p &lt;0.001). Using time series linear regression approach, cumulative number of active cases is forecasted to be 6695 (95% CI: 6259 - 7131) on 93<sup>rd</sup> day since 18 Sep 2022, if similar trend continues in upcoming 3 weeks in Uttarakhand.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Regression models are useful for forecasting COVID-19 instances, which will help governments and health organisations address this pandemic in future and establish appropriate policies and recommendations for regular prevention.</p> Jayanti Semwal Abhinav Bahuguna Akanksha Uniyal Shaili Vyas Copyright (c) 2023 Jayanti Semwal, Abhinav Bahuguna, Akanksha Uniyal, Shaili Vyas 2023-02-28 2023-02-28 14 02 82 89 10.55489/njcm.140220232656 A Study on Depression, Anxiety and Stress Among Medical Undergraduate Students of a Women’s Medical College, South India <p><strong>Background: </strong>Mental health of a medical student remains affected throughout training due to long study and working hours, extensive course content, examinations, peer competition, uninspiring environments, sleep deprivation. Objectives of this study is to estimate the proportion of Depression, Anxiety and Stress among Women medical undergraduate students and to determine the association between the Depression, Anxiety, Stress and Socio demographic factors among Women medical undergraduate students.</p> <p><strong>Materials and methods: </strong>This were a cross sectional Study conducted among First, second, third and fourth year MBBS students of SVIMS - Sri Padmavathi Medical College for Women, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh. Medical students who were present and willing to participate voluntarily on the day of data collection were included. Sample size calculated was 375. Information collected was socio-demographic details and Depression Anxiety Stress scale [DASS 42] was used to assess depression, anxiety and stress levels.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The present study assessed Depression, Anxiety and Stress among 588 medical undergraduates, by using DASS 42 scale which revealed prevalence of depression was 34.7%, anxiety 44% and stress 30.3% and their association year of study, not satisfied, partially satisfied with own education, less consumption water, less sleeping hours and hours of usage of gadgets.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The present study found that prevalence of depression 34.7%, anxiety 44% and stress 30.3% among medical undergraduates. Medical students under strain are either unaware of their situation or reluctant to seek help.</p> Ravi Sankar Deekala Sindhu Mandyam Swetha Rao G Visweswara Rao Guthi Pravallika Sudharani Rosivari Copyright (c) 2023 Ravi Sankar Deekala, Sindhu Mandyam, Swetha Rao G, Visweswara Rao Guthi, Pravallika Sudharani Rosivari 2023-02-28 2023-02-28 14 02 90 96 10.55489/njcm.140220232669 Are Patients Satisfied with Government Health Care? A Study on Patient’s Level of Satisfaction and Their Perception of Violence Against Doctors at A Government Hospital in North Karnataka, India <p><strong>Background:</strong> The level of patient satisfaction must be evaluated periodically to assess the quality of health care provided by the government and to improve health care delivery in developing nations. The purpose of the study is to determine the level of patient satisfaction and their perception of violence against doctors among in-patients attending government teaching hospital.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>It was a cross-sectional study among in‑patients of government teaching hospital in North Karnataka. A predesigned structured Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire –18 (PSQ–18), along with self-framed violence questionnaire was used as study tools. Descriptive Statistics, ANOVA &amp; Kruskal - Wallis tests were done using SPSS version 16.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The mean score for overall satisfaction was 3.72± 0.387. The mean patient satisfaction was highest for interpersonal manner (4.00 ±0.72) &amp; the least was accessibility and convenience (3.52±0.58). Among the study subjects47.5% had heard about the violence against the doctors, 33.5% said violence against doctors is on rise. Violence against doctors was unethical according to 57.5% and 60% said it must summon punishment.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>The overall patient satisfaction was good; accessibility and convenience need to be improved. The study helps in understanding patient’s needs in various dimensions of health care.</p> Rudramma J Jannatbi Iti Copyright (c) 2023 Rudramma J, Jannatbi Iti 2023-02-28 2023-02-28 14 02 97 106 10.55489/njcm.140220232658 Factors Affecting Under-Five Mortality Rate (U5MR) in India- National Family Health Survey (NFHS) 5 Factsheet What It Speaks? <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>In developing countries various factors lead to Under-5 Mortality and irreversible losses which can be prevented by proper measures take on factors affecting to it.</p> <p><strong>Objective: </strong>This study was conducted to analyse the changing trends of Under-5 Mortality in India<strong>. </strong>The new National Family Health Survey (5th round) which was published recently came up with several new findings, which were both encouraging and disheartening and also one of the major Sustainable Development Goals.</p> <p><strong>Method: </strong>A secondary data analysis was conducted of NFHS factsheets to study the U5MR in India. The indicators which had a correlation either positive or negative with the Under-five mortality rate were included.</p> <p><strong>Result- </strong>When we look at the result, few states' performance is encouraging because they have shown some of the best declines. Correlation was found between dependant variable that is U5MR which is a dependent variable and several independent variables which concluded that factors like Women literacy, Men literacy, Breastfeeding, Nutritional insufficiencies, Caesarean delivery, ANC visits and IFA consumptions are negatively associated with U5MR<strong>.</strong></p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Various steps have been taken in order to improve our healthcare sector since independence, every government had their fair share of contribution, that’s the reason why we are this stage. Now it’s time to increase efforts with targeted interventions to solve this problem and complete our commitment towards the SDGs.</p> Nikita Gaur Tanya Singh Aanchal Singhal Abhimanyu Dabas Sudhanshu Batra Sidharth Mishra Copyright (c) 2023 Nikita Gaur, Tanya Singh, Aanchal Singhal, Abhumanyu Dabas, Sudhanshu Batra, Sidharth Mishra 2023-02-28 2023-02-28 14 02 107 113 10.55489/njcm.140220232492 Impaired Cognition – A Menace to Aging <p>Cognition is defined as mental process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience and senses. It is an age-related degenerative condition, as the age advances, individuals experience deteriorative changes in their cognitive abilities. It is estimated that nearly four fifth of the elderly above 60 years of age will be living in developing countries like Africa, Asia by 2050, thereby placing the developing countries to face threat of cognitive impairment among elderly when compared to developed countries. The result of striking increase in ag-ing population of India, it is expected to have a substantial increase in elderly suffering from cognitive impair-ment. This review involves discussing the various causes, pathophysiology, modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors associated with this increasing cognitive deterioration in elderly people, diagnostic criteria, and preven-tive methods. This review will help in better understanding of the cognitive impairment in elderly people. Better understanding of the disease helps in better treatment modalities.</p> Sujitha P Swetha NB Copyright (c) 2023 Sujitha P, Swetha NB 2023-02-28 2023-02-28 14 02 118 123 10.55489/njcm.140220232125 Physical Activity in Control of Diabetes Mellitus: An Underrated Entity <p>Glycaemic control and reduction in mortality among diabetes can be easily achieved by a cost-effective intervention, Physical activity. Moderate to vigorous intensity activities are usually recommended for diabetics. Structured engagement of diabetes by combining physical activity and modest weight loss activities their risk can be reduced by 58%. But most of the diabetics prefer to remain inactive. Hence this article highlights the importance of physical activity, acute and chronic effects of physical activity on diabetics, recommended level of activity, recommended type of activity and ways to adhere and maintain those activities.</p> Vinoth Chellaiyan Devanbu Aarthy Arumugam Suruliraman SM Copyright (c) 2023 Vinoth Chellaiyan Devanbu, Aarthy Arumugam, Suruliraman SM 2023-02-28 2023-02-28 14 02 128 133 10.55489/njcm.140220232589 Future of Public Health in The Era of Artificial Intelligence Ajay Pawar Copyright (c) 2023 Ajay Pawar 2023-02-28 2023-02-28 14 02 73 73 10.55489/njcm.140220232876 Otosyphilis In An HIV-Infected Patient: The First Case in Vietnam <p>Syphilis has been re-emerging around the world, especially in MSM and people living with HIV. Because of the high number of infections, complications of the disease that were previously rare, now appear again. Otosyphilis is one of them. We reported a case of a 31-year-old MSM patient, HIV-positive, with sudden hearing loss of both ears and tinnitus due to syphilis. This is the first case of otosyphilis detected in Vietnam. The diagnosis of otosyphilis may be delayed because its symptoms are similar to those of other diseases. Therefore, there should be a highly suspected indicator of otosyphilis that can help clinicians orient the diagnosis and handle it in a timely manner.</p> Pham Phuoc Hung Lam Tam Thanh Nguyen Nguyen Ngoc Hieu Copyright (c) 2023 Pham Phuoc Hung Lam, Tam Thanh Nguyen, Nguyen Ngoc Hieu 2023-02-28 2023-02-28 14 02 124 127 10.55489/njcm.140220232622 Kite String Injures During Makar Sankranti Festival <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Kite flying is a colourful festival; it is unfortunately associated with a significant number of incising injuries of neck and face caused by the kite string (Manja). The emergency departments report a large number of patients with such injuries during this festival.</p> <p><strong>Materials And Methods:</strong> Patients presented to the Emergency Department at Civil Hospital, Gandhinagar on 14<sup>th</sup> and 15<sup>th</sup> January with neck and face injury caused by contact with kite string were included in study. After careful assessment (primary and secondary survey) patients were classified as Superficial (Laceration limited to the skin and subcutaneous tissue) or Deep injury (breach of the platysma, and damage to muscles, thyroid gland, neurovascular or airway involvement).</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>20 patients were included in study. Out of which 18 were males and 2 were females. Amongst 18 males 2 were children. Two patients wearing a helmet suffered an injury to the nose. The neck zones involved in the injury, 5 cases involved zone I injury, 9 cases in zone II, 4 cases were in zone III and the remaining 2 had the nasal injury.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>From this study we conclude that kite string injury lead to serious damage to local tissues. Using protective measures can reduce the incidence and severity of injuries.</p> Yash Kakadia Yogesh Gajjar Priya Savsani Chetan Yadav Copyright (c) 2023 Yash Kakadia, Yogesh Gajjar, Priya Savsani, Chetan Yadav 2023-02-28 2023-02-28 14 02 114 117 10.55489/njcm.140220232648