Child Vaccination Coverage in India and Its Impact: Evidence From NFHS-5 Factsheet


  • Sheetal S International Institute of Health Management Research, Delhi, India
  • Saransh Khanna International Institute of Health Management Research, Delhi, India
  • Shivam Kumar Shukla International Institute of Health Management Research, Delhi, India
  • Sidharth Mishra International Institute of Health Management Research, Delhi, India



Child vaccination, NFHS 5, National Family Health Survey 5, vaccination coverage, Immunization India, Childhood disease


Background: In developing countries various childhood diseases lead the morbidity, mortality and irreversible losses which can be prevented by proper vaccination. This study was conducted to analyse the changing trends of childhood vaccination in India and its impact on childhood diseases and mortality, the trends in coverage of each vaccine along with identification of geographical areas of concern.

Materials and methods: NFHS data published by Government of India was analyzed to see the trends in vaccination coverage, female literacy, childhood diseases and under-five mortality, along with online database search for relevant literature.

Results: Total vaccination coverage in India has reached to 76.4% as per NFHS- 5 data. Orissa stands at the top with 90.5% coverage while Nagaland at the bottom with 57.9% coverage. Prevalence of childhood diseases and under-five mortality has reduced overtime accountable to increase in vaccination coverage as one of the major factors for same.

Conclusion: Despite improvement in total vaccination coverage, the goal of Intensified Mission Indra Dhanush of 90% coverage still remains unachieved. There is reduction in childhood disease and mortality rate, but the pandemic has adversely affected these advances. Therefore, immediate steps should be taken to gain the lost ground.


Roush SW, Murphy TV, Vaccine-Preventable Disease Table Working Group. Historical comparisons of morbidity and mortality for vaccine-preventable diseases in the United States. JAMA [Internet]. 2007 [cited 2022 Jan 17];298(18):2155-63. Doi: PMid:18000199

Rainey JJ, Watkins M, Ryman TK, Sandhu P, Bo A, Banerjee K. Reasons related to non-vaccination and under-vaccination of children in low and middle income countries: findings from a systematic review of the published literature, 1999-2009. Vaccine [Internet]. 2011 [cited 2022 Jan 17];29(46):8215-21. Doi: PMid:21893149

Mission indradhanush [Internet]. [cited 2022 Jan 17]. Available from:

Laxminarayan R, Ganguly NK. India's vaccine deficit: why more than half of Indian children are not fully immunized, and what can--and should--be done. Health Aff (Millwood) [Internet]. 2011 [cited 2022 Jan 17];30(6):1096-103. Doi: PMid:21653963

Mills E, Jadad AR, Ross C, Wilson K. Systematic review of qualitative studies exploring parental beliefs and attitudes toward child-hood vaccination identifies common barriers to vaccination. J Clin Epidemiol [Internet]. 2005 [cited 2022 Jan 17];58(11):1081-8. Doi: PMid:16223649

Bond L, Nolan T. Making sense of perceptions of risk of diseases and vaccinations: a qualitative study combining models of health beliefs, decision-making and risk perception. BMC Public Health [Internet]. 2011;11:943. Doi: PMid:22182354 PMCid:PMC3260331

Diekema DS, American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Bioethics. Responding to parental refusals of immunization of children. Pediatrics [Internet]. 2005 [cited 2022 Jan 17];115(5):1428-31. Doi: PMid:15867060

Falagas ME, Zarkadoulia E. Factors associated with suboptimal compliance to vaccinations in children in developed countries: a systematic review. Curr Med Res Opin [Internet]. 2008 [cited 2022 Jan 17];24(6):1719-41. Doi: PMid:18474148

Kumar C, Singh PK, Singh L, Rai RK. Socioeconomic disparities in coverage of full immunisation among children of adolescent moth-ers in India, 1990-2006: a repeated cross-sectional analysis. BMJ Open [Internet]. 2016;6(8):e009768. Doi: PMid:27519918 PMCid:PMC4985793

Taneja G, Sagar KS, Mishra S. Routine Immunization in India: A perspective. Indian J Community Health [Internet]. 2013 [cited 2022 Jan 17];25(2):188-92. Available from:

Travasso C. Mission Indradhanush makes vaccination progress in India. BMJ [Internet]. 2015 [cited 2022 Jan 17];351:h4440. Doi: PMid:26270545

Bhatnagar P, Gupta S, Kumar R, Haldar P, Sethi R, Bahl S. Estimation of child vaccination coverage at state and national levels in India. Bull World Health Organ [Internet]. 2016 [cited 2022 Jan 17];94(10):728-34. Doi: PMid:27843162 PMCid:PMC5043206

Kumar, R. (2019) Intensified Mission Indradhanush 2.0 Transforming India's Universal Immunisation Program, Employment News. [cited 2022 Jan 17]. Available from:

Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (2021) Press Information Bureau. [cited 2022 Jan 17]. Available from:

Intensified Mission Indradhanush 4.0 (2022). [cited 2022 Jan 17]. Available from:

Institute of Medicine (US) Committee on Health Literacy, Nielsen-Bohlman L, Panzer AM, Kindig DA. Introduction. Washington, D.C., DC: National Academies Press; 2004.

Berkman ND, Sheridan SL, Donahue KE, Halpern DJ, Crotty K. Low health literacy and health outcomes: an updated systematic re-view. Ann Intern Med [Internet]. 2011 [cited 2022 Jan 17];155(2):97-107. Doi: PMid:21768583

Reeve CL, Basalik D. Is health literacy an example of construct proliferation? A conceptual and empirical evaluation of its redundan-cy with general cognitive ability. Intelligence [Internet]. 2014;44:93-102. Doi:

Johri M, Subramanian SV, Sylvestre M-P, Dudeja S, Chandra D, Koné GK, et al. Association between maternal health literacy and child vaccination in India: a cross-sectional study. J Epidemiol Community Health [Internet]. 2015 [cited 2022 Jan 17];69(9):849-57. Doi: PMid:25827469 PMCid:PMC4552929

Gakidou E, Cowling K, Lozano R, Murray CJL. Increased educational attainment and its effect on child mortality in 175 countries be-tween 1970 and 2009: a systematic analysis. Lancet [Internet]. 2010 [cited 2022 Jan 17];376(9745):959-74. Doi:

National family health survey [Internet]. [cited 2022 Jan 17]. Available from:

Mathew JL, Patwari AK, Gupta P, Shah D, Gera T, Gogia S, et al. Acute respiratory infection and pneumonia in India: a systematic re-view of literature for advocacy and action: UNICEF-PHFI series on newborn and child health, India. Indian Pediatr [Internet]. 2011 [cited 2022 Jan 17];48(3):191-218. Doi: PMid:21478555




How to Cite

Sheetal S, Khanna S, Shukla SK, Mishra S. Child Vaccination Coverage in India and Its Impact: Evidence From NFHS-5 Factsheet. Natl J Community Med [Internet]. 2022 Sep. 30 [cited 2024 May 29];13(09):672-7. Available from:



Narrative Review