Women's Empowerment: Bringing Women’s Rights and Health into Focus- A Comparative Analysis of State Fact Sheets of National Family Health Survey (NFHS)-4 & 5
Keywords:Women empowerment, SDG-5 goal, Social and economic growth, Health metric
Objectives: Women’s empowerment is a crucial factor for economic and social growth. India being committed to making women contribute equally to the growth and development of the country by 2030 (under Sustainable Development Goal-5), this study aimed to highlight the major shortcomings in the domain of Women’s health and other social and economic growth parameters.
Methods: For this study, data related to various health and non-health parameters were used from largest survey in India i.e., National Family Health Survey factsheets. In reference to “the Global Gender Gap measure introduced by the World Economic Forum, the indicators have also been classified as 4 broad themes, for each of which, indicators were selected from NFHS factsheet for analysis, interpretation and reporting.
Results: With 2.9% increase in the child sex ratio from 991 to 1022 females per 1000 males over the last two rounds of NFHS indicates a significant societal shift in the country. Out of 21 selected indicators, 4 parameters namely Screening test for cervical and breast cancer, Marriage of women before 18 years of age and Anaemia amongst women have shown a negative change over the past 5 years. Changes in the rural areas are more significant as compared with that of Urban areas.
Conclusion: The study found that although, we have made some progress on the metrics around health, education, economic and social empowerment parameters, to get an adequate assessment of developments, we need to expand the basket of indicators and analyse change in them holistically.
Menaka G. Women Empowerment in India. 2017; Doi: https://doi.org/10.21744/ijllc.v3i4.485
Janghorban R, Taghipour A, Roudsari RL, Abbasi M. Women's Empowerment in Iran: A Review Based on the Related Legislations. Glob J Health Sci. 2014 Jul;6(4):226. Doi: https://doi.org/10.5539/gjhs.v6n4p226 PMid:24999125 PMCid:PMC4825391
Women Empowerment in 21st Century [Internet]. [cited 2021 Dec 20]. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/317745427_Women_Empowerment_in_21st_Century
Dandona A. Empowerment of Women: A Conceptual Framework. Int J Indian Psychol. 2015 Jun 30;2:35-45. Doi:https://doi.org/10.25215/0203.044
DAVIDSON PM, McGRATH SJ, MELEIS AI, STERN P, DiGIACOMO M, DHARMENDRA T, et al. The Health of Women and Girls Deter-mines the Health and Well-Being of Our Modern World: A White Paper From the International Council on Women's Health Issues. Health Care Women Int. 2011 Oct;32(10):870-86. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/07399332.2011.603872 PMid:21919625 PMCid:PMC3703826
The Gender Income Gap and the Role of Education - Donna Bobbitt-Zeher, 2007 [Internet]. [cited 2021 Dec 21]. Available from: https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/003804070708000101
Sustainable development goals report 2017.pdf [Internet]. [cited 2021 Dec 20]. Available from: https://unstats.un.org/sdgs/files/report/2017/thesustainabledevelopmentgoalsreport2017.pdf
National Policy for Women Empowerment | Ministry of Women & Child Development [Internet]. [cited 2021 Dec 20]. Available from: https://wcd.nic.in/womendevelopment/national-policy-women-empowerment
WEF's gender gap index: India slips 28 places, ranks 140 among 156 countries. The Hindu [Internet]. 2021 Mar 31 [cited 2021 Dec 20]; Available from: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/wefs-gender-gap-index-india-slips-28-places-ranks-140-among-156-countries/article34206867.ece
Waris A, Viraktamath BC. Gender gaps and Women's Empowerment in India -Issues and Strategies. 2013;3(9):9.
Mitroi LR, Sahak M, Sherzai AZ, Sherzai D. The Women's Health Care Empowerment Model as a Catalyst for Change in Developing Countries. Health Care Women Int. 2016;37(3):273-87. Doi:https://doi.org/10.1080/07399332.2014.926903 PMid:24945243
Kumar G, Choudhary TS, Srivastava A, Upadhyay RP, Taneja S, Bahl R, et al. Utilisation, equity and determinants of full antenatal care in India: analysis from the National Family Health Survey 4. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2019 Sep 5;19(1):327. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12884-019-2473-6 PMid:31488080 PMCid:PMC6727513
Women Empowerment Schemes.pdf [Internet]. [cited 2021 Dec 15]. Available from: https://www.bbau.ac.in/Docs/FoundationCourse/TM/MPDC405/Women%20Empowerment%20Schemes.pdf
National Family Health Survey [Internet]. [cited 2021 Dec 21]. Available from: http://rchiips.org/nfhs/
What does NFHS-5 data tell us about women empowerment in India? | IDR [Internet]. India Development Review. 2021 [cited 2021 Dec 21]. Available from: https://idronline.org/what-does-nfhs-5-data-tell-us-about-women-empowerment-in-india/
Census of India: Sample Registration [Internet]. [cited 2021 Dec 21]. Available from: https://censusindia.gov.in/Vital_Statistics/SRS/Sample_Registration_System.aspx
World Development Indicators 2012 [Internet]. [cited 2021 Dec 30]. Available from: https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle/10986/6014
Determinants and Indicators of Women Empowerment: A Walk Through Psychological Patterns and Behavioural Implications [In-ternet]. Science Alert. [cited 2021 Dec 30]. Available from: https://scialert.net/fulltext/?doi=rjbm.2017.15.27 Doi:https://doi.org/10.3923/rjbm.2017.15.27
Where next for family planning? - The Lancet [Internet]. [cited 2021 Dec 30]. Available from: https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(09)61960-7/fulltext
Facts and Figures: Economic Empowerment | UN Women [Internet]. [cited 2021 Dec 30]. Available from: https://www.unwomen.org/en/what-we-do/economic-empowerment/facts-and-figures
Gender Equality: Women's Economic Empowerment [Internet]. [cited 2021 Dec 30]. Available from: https://in.one.un.org/unibf/gender-equality/
Thanikaivel M, Priya K. ECONOMIC EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN IN INDIA. Int J Tech Res Sci. 2018; Doi: https://doi.org/10.30780/IJTRS.V3.I7.2018.014
Social and Economic Empowerment of women and girls - Simavi | Powerful women, healthy societies | Africa en Asia [Internet]. [cited 2021 Dec 30]. Available from: https://simavi.nl/en/social-and-economic-empowerment-of-women-and-girls
Ali B, Dhillon P, Mohanty SK. Inequalities in the utilization of maternal health care in the pre- and post-National Health Mission peri-ods in India. J Biosoc Sci. 2020 Mar;52(2):198-212. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0021932019000385 PMid:31232249
MPV_guidelines.pdf [Internet]. [cited 2021 Dec 30]. Available from: http://nhm.gov.in/images/pdf/programmes/family-planing/guidelines/MPV/MPV_guidelines.pdf
Ewerling F, McDougal L, Raj A, Ferreira LZ, Blumenberg C, Parmar D, et al. Modern contraceptive use among women in need of family planning in India: an analysis of the inequalities related to the mix of methods used. Reprod Health. 2021 Aug 21;18(1):173. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12978-021-01220-w PMid:34419083 PMCid:PMC8379729
Institutional delivery in India, 2004-14: unravelling the equity-enhancing contributions of the public sector - PubMed [Internet]. [cited 2021 Dec 30]. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29659831/
Prevalence of Anemia and Its Determinants Among Pregnant, Lactating, and Nonpregnant Nonlactating Women in India - Moham-mad Zahid Siddiqui, Srinivas Goli, Tamal Reja, Riddhi Doshi, Swastika Chakravorty, Chhavi Tiwari, Nomita P. Kumar, Deepshikha Singh, 2017 [Internet]. [cited 2021 Dec 30]. Available from: https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/2158244017725555
The burden of anemia among women in India | European Journal of Clinical Nutrition [Internet]. [cited 2021 Dec 30]. Available from: https://www.nature.com/articles/1601504
Smetherman DH. Breast Cancer Screening and the COVID-19 Pandemic. J Breast Imaging. 2020 Dec 24;wbaa106. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1093/jbi/wbaa106 PMCid:PMC7798968
FSG-Menstrual-Health-Landscape_India.pdf [Internet]. [cited 2021 Dec 30]. Available from: https://menstrualhygieneday.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/04/FSG-Menstrual-Health-Landscape_India.pdf
Singh A, Kumar K, McDougal L, Silverman JG, Atmavilas Y, Gupta R, et al. Does owning a bank account improve reproductive and ma-ternal health services utilization and behavior in India? Evidence from the National Family Health Survey 2015-16. SSM - Popul Health. 2019 Apr 6;7:100396. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssmph.2019.100396 PMid:31016224 PMCid:PMC6468192
Pasricha A. India Could Raise Marriage Age for Women from 18 to 21 [Internet]. VOA. [cited 2021 Dec 30]. Available from: https://www.voanews.com/a/india-could-raise-marriage-age-for-women-from-18-to-21-/6364862.html
Ending child marriage and adolescent empowerment | UNICEF India [Internet]. [cited 2021 Dec 30]. Available from: https://www.unicef.org/india/what-we-do/end-child-marriage
Does having a mobile phone matter? Linking phone access among women to health in India: An exploratory analysis of the National Family Health Survey [Internet]. [cited 2021 Dec 30]. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7371204/
George AS, Morgan R, Larson E, LeFevre A. Gender dynamics in digital health: overcoming blind spots and biases to seize opportuni-ties and responsibilities for transformative health systems. J Public Health Oxf Engl. 2018 Dec;40(Suppl 2):ii6-11. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1093/pubmed/fdy180 PMid:30307517 PMCid:PMC6294040
Investigating the relationship between women's experience of intimate partner violence and utilization of maternal healthcare ser-vices in India | Scientific Reports [Internet]. [cited 2021 Dec 30]. Available from: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-021-89688-1.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2022 Chhandasri Mishra, Shivangi Dash , Anuj Kumar Pandey, Siddharth Sekhar Mishra
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Author/s retain the copyright of their article, with first publication rights granted to Medsci Publications.