Effectiveness of Nutritional Intervention on Bone Mineral Density among Women Aged 30-50 Years in South India

Authors

  • Silpa Chintham Vinayaka Missions Annapoorana College of Nursing, Vinayaka Mission’s Research Foundation (Deemed to be University), Salem, Tamil Nadu, India

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.55489/njcm.150720243904

Keywords:

Bone Mineral Density, Nutritional Intervention, porous bones, middle aged women

Abstract

Introduction: By 2050, low bone mineral density in women is expected to increase by 40% globally, considerably increasing the burden of osteoporosis in future generations, which necessitates greater focus on preventive measures. Hence, it was planned to study the effectiveness of calcium rich nutritional intervention on bone mineral density among women aged 30-50 years in South India.

Methods: A quasi-experimental pre-test and post-test control group design was conducted among randomly selected 20 urban and rural women aged 30-50 years. Calcium rich nutritional mix was given for 16 weeks to the interventional arm and for control arm, education on importance of calcium rich diet was given. Bone mineral density was measured by DEXA scan pre and post intervention. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyse the data.

Results: Before intervention, all the women (100%) had mildly reduced bone mineral density; post intervention, majority of the women (80%) had normal bone mineral density, only 20% had mildly reduced bone mineral density. In the control group, 100% had mildly reduced bone mineral density before receiving health education and after 16 weeks of education, 90% had mildly reduced bone mineral density and only 10% had normal bone mineral density.

Conclusion: Calcium rich nutritional intervention given to the experimental group women resulted in a significant improvement in their bone mineral density. However, risk can be lowered by leading a healthy lifestyle that includes enough quantities of dietary calcium, vitamin D, and protein, frequent weight-bearing activity.

References

Fathima N, Tamil Selvi R, Beham MP. Assessment of BMD and Statistical Analysis for Osteoporosis Detection. Biomed Pharmacol J 2019;12(4): 1907-14. Doi: https://doi.org/10.13005/bpj/1822

Haseltine KN, Chukir T, Smith PJ, Jacob JT, Bilezikian JP, Farooki A. Bone Mineral Density: Clinical Relevance and Quantitative Assessment. J Nucl Med. 2021 Apr;62(4):446-454. Doi: https://doi.org/10.2967/jnumed.120.256180 PMid:33310738 PMCid:PMC8049374

Kim SK. Identification of 613 new loci associated with heel bone mineral density and a polygenic risk score for bone mineral density, osteoporosis and fracture. PLoS One 2018. 13(7): e0200785. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0200785 PMid:30048462 PMCid:PMC6062019

Sözen T, Özışık L, Başaran NÇ. An overview and management of osteoporosis. Eur J Rheumatol. 2017 Mar;4(1):46-56. Doi: https://doi.org/10.5152/eurjrheum.2016.048 PMid:28293453 PMCid:PMC5335887

Babhulkar S, Seth S. Prevalence of osteoporosis in India: an observation of 31238 adults. International Journal of Research in Orthopaedic. 2021; 7(2):362-36. Doi: https://doi.org/10.18203/issn.2455-4510.IntJResOrthop20210630

Khadilkar AV, Mandlik RM. Epidemiology and treatment of osteoporosis in women: an Indian perspective. Int J Womens Health. 2015 Oct 19;7:841-50. Doi: https://doi.org/10.2147/IJWH.S54623 PMid:26527900 PMCid:PMC4621228

Shen Y, Huang X, Wu J, Lin X, Zhou X, Zhu Z, Pan X, Xu J, Qiao J, Zhang T, Ye L, Jiang H, Ren Y, Shan PF. The Global Burden of Osteoporosis, Low Bone Mass, and Its Related Fracture in 204 Countries and Territories, 1990-2019. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2022 May 20;13:882241. Doi: https://doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2022.882241 PMid:35669691 PMCid:PMC9165055

Bass MA, Sharma A, Nahar VK, Chelf S, Zeller B, Pham L, Allison Ford M. Bone Mineral Density Among Men and Women Aged 35 to 50 Years. J Am Osteopath Assoc. 2019 Jun 1;119(6):357-363. Doi: https://doi.org/10.7556/jaoa.2019.064 PMid:31135863

Roohani I, Cheong S, Wang A. How to build a bone? - Hydroxyapatite or Posner's clusters as bone minerals. Open ceramics. 2021;6:100092. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.oceram.2021.100092

Feng X. Chemical and Biochemical Basis of Cell-Bone Matrix Interaction in Health and Disease. Curr Chem Biol. 2009 May 1;3(2):189-196. Doi: https://doi.org/10.2174/187231309788166398 PMid:20161446 PMCid:PMC2790195

Robert P. Heaney. Principles of Bone Biology. Chapter 79 - Calcium. Third Edition. Vol-II: 2008.

Sunyecz JA. The use of calcium and vitamin D in the management of osteoporosis. Ther Clin Risk Manag. 2008 Aug;4(4):827-36. Doi: https://doi.org/10.2147/TCRM.S3552 PMid:19209265 PMCid:PMC2621390

Harinarayan CV, Akhila H. Modern India and the Tale of Twin Nutrient Deficiency-Calcium and Vitamin D-Nutrition Trend Data 50 Years-Retrospect, Introspect, and Prospect. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2019 Aug 9;10:493. Doi: https://doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2019.00493 PMid:31447775 PMCid:PMC6696513

Balk EM, Adam GP, Langberg VN, Earley A, Clark P, Ebeling PR, Mithal A, Rizzoli R, Zerbini CAF, Pierroz DD, Dawson-Hughes B; International Osteoporosis Foundation Calcium Steering Committee. Global dietary calcium intake among adults: a systematic review. Osteoporos Int. 2017 Dec;28(12):3315-3324. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00198-018-4447-3 PMid:29480343 PMCid:PMC6828480

Quattrini S, Pampaloni B, Gronchi G, Giusti F, Brandi ML. The Mediterranean Diet in Osteoporosis Prevention: An Insight in a Peri- and Post-Menopausal Population. Nutrients. 2021 Feb 6;13(2):531. Doi: https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13020531 PMid:33561997 PMCid:PMC7915719

Prins SH, Jørgensen HL, Jørgensen LV, Hassager C. The role of quantitative ultrasound in the assessment of bone: a review. Clin Physiol. 1998 Jan;18(1):3-17. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2281.1998.00067.x PMid:9545615

Akil S, Al-Mohammed H, Al-Batati N, Tirsen M, Al-Otaibi A, AlZahrani A, Bakhder D, AlSubaie R, AbuAlsaud S. Quantitative ultrasound assessment of the effect of parity on bone mineral density in females. BMC Womens Health. 2021 Oct 30;21(1):380. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12905-021-01516-w PMid:34717605 PMCid:PMC8557593

Ragavan P, Grace Kalaimathi SA, Annie Raja AF, Babu A. Effectiveness of Nursing Intervention Package on Improving Bone Health among Post-Menopausal Women Residing In Rural Villages of Tiruvannamalai District, Tamilnadu Pilot Study Report. JMSCR 2019; 7(11): 932-935. Doi: https://doi.org/10.18535/jmscr/v7i11.162

Shea B, Wells G, Cranney A, Zytaruk N, Robinson V, Griffith L, Hamel C, Ortiz Z, Peterson J, Adachi J, Tugwell P, Guyatt G; Os-teoporosis Methodology Group; Osteoporosis Research Advi-sory Group. Calcium supplementation on bone loss in post-menopausal women. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2004;(1):CD004526. Update in: Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007 Jul 18;(1):CD004526. PMID: 14974070

Arazi H, Samadpour M, Eghbali E. The effects of concurrent training (aerobic-resistance) and milk consumption on some markers of bone mineral density in women with osteoporosis. BMC Womens Health. 2018 Dec 17;18(1):202. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12905-018-0694-x PMid:30558600 PMCid:PMC6296016

Downloads

Published

2024-07-01

How to Cite

1.
Chintham S. Effectiveness of Nutritional Intervention on Bone Mineral Density among Women Aged 30-50 Years in South India. Natl J Community Med [Internet]. 2024 Jul. 1 [cited 2024 Jul. 21];15(07):541-5. Available from: https://njcmindia.com/index.php/file/article/view/3904

Issue

Section

Original Research Articles