Prevalence Of Depression And Associated Factors Among Elderly Population In A Rural Area Of Kozhikode District, North Kerala.


  • Roshni SS Malabar Medical College Hospital and Research Centre, Kozhikode, India
  • Lilabi MP Government Medical College Kozhikode, Kozhikode, India
  • Krishna Raj JS Malabar Medical College Hospital and Research Centre, Kozhikode, India
  • Bindu V Government Medical College Kozhikode, Kozhikode, India
  • Ageesh TG Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences, Kochi, Kochi, India



Depression, Elderly, Rural, Risk factors, GDS-15


Background: Old age is often accompanied by frailty and diseases including neuropsychiatric disorders. Demen-tia and depression are the most common neuropsychiatric disorders among the elderly. Kerala has the maximum proportion of elderly in its population and successful identification of the elderly at risk is important for early in-tervention. The purpose of the study is to estimate the prevalence of depression and associated factors among the elderly population.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 320 elderlies from July 2018 to July 2019.The preva-lence of depression was estimated using GDS-15. Socio-demographic factors, self- perceived health status, mor-bidity profile, falls and related factors, religious practices, independence in activities of daily living, and other so-cial factors associated with depression were assessed.

Results: 38.1% of the elderly were depressed. Majority had mild depression (23.4%) and 3.1% were severely depressed. Having no formal education, low socioeconomic status, not living with a spouse, no role in decision -making, average or poor self-perceived health status, past surgical history, and fear of falls were found to be inde-pendent predictors of depression.

Conclusion: The prevalence of depression was high among elderly. Screening for depression in the elderly should be incorporated in already available programs along with appropriate health care measures.


Nakulan A, Sumesh TP, Kumar S, Rejani PP, Shaji KS. Prevalence and risk factors for depression among community resident older people in Kerala. Indian J Psychiatry 2015;57(3):262-6. Doi: PMid:26600579 PMCid:PMC4623644

Padayachey U, Ramlall S, Chipps J. Depression in older adults: prevalence and risk factors in a primary health care sample. South Afr Fam Pract 2017;59(2):61-6. Doi:

ElderlyinIndia_2016.pdf [Internet]. [cited 2017 Oct 1];Available from:

Life Expectancy in India [Internet]. World Life Expect. [cited 2019 Sep 10];Available from:

Irudaya Rajan S, Centre for Enquiry into Health & Allied Themes (Mumbai I. Population ageing and health in India. Mumbai: Centre for Enquiry into Health and Allied Themes; 2006.

Depression_in_india.pdf [Internet]. [cited 2017 Oct 1];Available from:

Mohan Y, Jain T, Krishna S, Rajkumar A, Bonigi S. Elderly depression: unnoticed public health problem in India- a study on preva-lence of depression and its associated factors among people above 60 years in a semi urban area in Chennai. Int J Community Med Public Health 2017;4:3468. Doi:

Sengupta P, Benjamin AI. Prevalence of depression and associated risk factors among the elderly in urban and rural field practice ar-eas of a tertiary care institution in Ludhiana. Indian J Public Health 2015;59(1):3-8. Doi: PMid:25758724

Soni S, Shukla S, Kumar M. Prevalence of depression and associated risk factors among the elderly in rural field practice areas of a tertiary care institution in Katihar, Bihar. Int J Adv Med 2016;3(4):1016-9. Doi:

Sharma K, Gupta A, Sharma RC, Mahajan N, Mahajan A, Sharma D, Mazta SR. Prevalence and risk factors for depression in elderly North Indians. J Geriatr Ment Health 2016;3:158-63. Doi:

Mandolikar RY, Naik P, Akram MDS, Nirgude AS. Depression among the elderly: A cross-sectional study in an urban community. Int J Med Sci Public Health 2017;6:318-322. Doi:

Devi Kittu, Logesh Wari. A Community Based Study of Depression and Its Risk Factors among Geriatric Population Inperiurban Ar-eas of Tamilnadu. Natl J Community Med 2017; 8(8):471- 476.

Sharma A, Gupta SK, Sanjay AS, Gupta Sanjay G, Shalini S. Assessment of Risk Factors and Prevalence of Depression among Elderly Subjects in a Rural Community. Natl J Community Med 2018; 9(4): 283-287

Saikia A, Mahanta N, Saikia A, Deka H, Boruah B, Mahanta R. Depression in elderly: a community -based study from Assam. Indian J Basic Appl Med Res 2016;September 2016: Vol.-5, Issue-4, P. 42-48:42-8.

Ahmed M, Walvekar P, Chate S, Mallapur M. Utility of Geriatric Depression Scale-15 for Assessment of Depression among Elderly: A Cross Sectional Study. Indian J Public Health Res Dev 2016;7:150. Doi:

Behera P, Sharan P, Mishra AK, Nongkynrih B, Kant S, Gupta SK. Prevalence and determinants of depression among elderly persons in a rural community from northern India. Natl Med J India 2016;29(3):129-35.

Coelho-Júnior HJ, Calvani R, Panza F, Allegri RF, Picca A, Marzetti E and Alves VP (2022) Religiosity/Spirituality and Mental Health in Older Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies. Front. Med. 9:877213. Doi: PMid:35646998 PMCid:PMC9133607

Peleg S, Nudelman G. Associations between self-rated health and depressive symptoms among older adults: Does age matter? Soc Sci Med. 2021 Jul;280:114024. Doi: PMid:34049050

Depression and postoperative complications: an overview [Internet]. [cited 2019 Oct 18];Available from:

Mishra N, Mishra AK, Bidija M. A study on correlation between depression, fear of fall and quality of life in elderly individuals. Int J Res Med Sci 2017;5(4):1456-60. Doi:




How to Cite

Roshni SS, MP L, JS KR, Bindu V, Ageesh TG. Prevalence Of Depression And Associated Factors Among Elderly Population In A Rural Area Of Kozhikode District, North Kerala. Natl J Community Med [Internet]. 2023 Jan. 31 [cited 2024 Jun. 23];14(01):24-30. Available from:



Original Research Articles