Impaired Cognition – A Menace to Aging
Keywords:Cognition, cognitive impairment, cognitive deterioration
Cognition is defined as mental process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience and senses. It is an age-related degenerative condition, as the age advances, individuals experience deteriorative changes in their cognitive abilities. It is estimated that nearly four fifth of the elderly above 60 years of age will be living in developing countries like Africa, Asia by 2050, thereby placing the developing countries to face threat of cognitive impairment among elderly when compared to developed countries. The result of striking increase in ag-ing population of India, it is expected to have a substantial increase in elderly suffering from cognitive impair-ment. This review involves discussing the various causes, pathophysiology, modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors associated with this increasing cognitive deterioration in elderly people, diagnostic criteria, and preven-tive methods. This review will help in better understanding of the cognitive impairment in elderly people. Better understanding of the disease helps in better treatment modalities.
Andrews S. Predicting Cognitive Decline: Genetic, Environmental and Lifestyle Risk Factors. 2017.
Elderly people make up a third of Japan's population - and it's reshaping the country [Internet]. World Economic Forum. 2020 [cit-ed 2020 Jun 6]. Available from: https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2019/09/elderly-oldest-population-world-japan/
Qiu C, Johansson G, Zhu F, Kivipelto M, Winblad B. Prevention of cognitive decline in old age-varying effects of interventions in dif-ferent populations. Ann Transl Med [Internet]. 2019 Jul [cited 2020 Jun 4];7(Suppl 3). Doi: https://doi.org/10.21037/atm.2019.06.19 PMid:31576349 PMCid:PMC6685914
Is it dementia or normal aging? [Internet]. [cited 2022 Jul 26]. Available from: https://www.brain.northwestern.edu/about/_news-articles/20210311-aging.html
Roberts RO, Cha RH, Mielke MM, Geda YE, Boeve BF, Machulda MM, et al. Risk and protective factors for cognitive impairment in persons aged 85 years and older. Neurology. 2015 May 5;84(18):1854-61. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000001537 PMid:25854867 PMCid:PMC4433468
Prevalence and correlates of cognitive impairment in a north Indian elderly population [Internet]. [cited 2020 Mar 20]. Available from: https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/329735
Ren L, Zheng Y, Wu L, Gu Y, He Y, Jiang B, et al. Investigation of the prevalence of Cognitive Impairment and its risk factors within the elderly population in Shanghai, China. Sci Rep. 2018 Feb 23;8(1):3575. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-21983-w PMid:29476112 PMCid:PMC5824836
Huang W, Qiu C, von Strauss E, Winblad B, Fratiglioni L. APOE genotype, family history of dementia, and Alzheimer disease risk: a 6-year follow-up study. Arch Neurol. 2004 Dec;61(12):1930-4. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1001/archneur.61.12.1930 PMid:15596614
Ontario Seniors Secretariat - Retirement Homes [Internet]. 2014 [cited 2020 Mar 21]. Available from: https://web.archive.org/web/20140222032259/http://www.seniors.gov.on.ca/en/retirement_homes/
Sharma D, Mazta SR, Parashar A. Prevalence of cognitive impairment and related factors among elderly: A population-based study. J Dr NTR Univ Health Sci. 2013 Jul 1;2(3):171. Doi: https://doi.org/10.4103/2277-8632.117182
Edwards III GA, Gamez N, Escobedo Jr. G, Calderon O, Moreno-Gonzalez I. Modifiable Risk Factors for Alzheimer's Disease. Front Ag-ing Neurosci [Internet]. 2019 Jun 24 [cited 2020 Jun 1];11. Doi: https://doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2019.00146 PMid:31293412 PMCid:PMC6601685
Arizaga RL, Gogorza RE, Allegri RF, Baumann PD, Morales MC, Harris P, et al. Cognitive impairment and risk factor prevalence in a population over 60 in Argentina. Dement Amp Neuropsychol. 2014 Dec;8(4):364-70. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1590/S1980-57642014DN84000010 PMid:29213927 PMCid:PMC5619185
Shi Z, Zhang Y, Yue W, Liu M, Huo YR, Liu S, et al. Prevalence and Clinical Predictors of Cognitive Impairment in Individuals Aged 80 Years and Older in Rural China. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2013;36(3-4):171-8. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1159/000350811 PMid:23900137
(PDF) Disturbances of sleep and cognitive functioning in patients with dementia [Internet]. 2020 [cited 2020 Jul 28]. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/16029132_Disturbances_of_sleep_and_cognitive_functioning_in_patients_with_dementia
Langa KM, Levine DA. The Diagnosis and Management of Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Clinical Review. JAMA. 2014 Dec 17;312(23):2551-61. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2014.13806 PMid:25514304 PMCid:PMC4269302
Litvan I, Goldman JG, Tröster AI, Schmand BA, Weintraub D, Petersen RC, et al. Diagnostic Criteria for Mild Cognitive Impairment in Parkinson's Disease: Movement Disorder Society Task Force Guidelines. Mov Disord Off J Mov Disord Soc. 2012 Mar;27(3):349-56. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1002/mds.24893 PMid:22275317 PMCid:PMC3641655
MoCA Montreal - Cognitive Assessment [Internet]. MoCA Montreal - Cognitive Assessment. [cited 2020 Oct 7]. Available from: https://www.mocatest.org/
Mini-mental state examination (MMSE) - Oxford Medical Education [Internet]. [cited 2020 Oct 7]. Available from: http://www.oxfordmedicaleducation.com/geriatrics/mini-mental-state-examination-mmse/
Perroco TR, Damin AE, Frota NA, Silva MNM, Rossi V, Nitrini R, et al. Short IQCODE as a screening tool for MCI and dementia: Prelim-inary results. Dement Neuropsychol. 2008;2(4):300-4. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1590/S1980-57642009DN20400012 PMid:29213589 PMCid:PMC5619084
Barnes DE, Tager IB, Satariano WA, Yaffe K [Internet]. The Relationship between Literacy and Cognition in Well-Educated Elders. The Journals of Gerontology; 2004 [cited 2020 Mar 31]. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1093/gerona/59.4.M390 PMid:15071084
Barnes DE, Santos-Modesitt W, Poelke G, Kramer AF, Castro C, Middleton LE, et al. The Mental Activity and eXercise (MAX) Trial: A Randomized, Controlled Trial to Enhance Cognitive Function in Older Adults. JAMA Intern Med. 2013 May 13;173(9):797-804. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1001/jamainternmed.2013.189 PMid:23545598 PMCid:PMC5921904
Haan MN, Wallace R. Can dementia be prevented? Brain aging in a population-based context. Annu Rev Public Health. 2004;25:1-24. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.publhealth.25.101802.122951 PMid:15015910
Solomon A, Mangialasche F, Richard E, Andrieu S, Bennett DA, Breteler M, et al. Advances in the prevention of Alzheimer's disease and dementia. J Intern Med. 2014 Mar;275(3):229-50. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/joim.12178 PMid:24605807 PMCid:PMC4390027
Sharma S, Thakur M, Kaur S. Health Problems and Treatment Seeking Behaviour among Elderly. HelpAge India-Research & Devel-opment Journal 2012; 18(2): 21 - 27.
PhDThesis_jesne_tryk_nofront.pdf [Internet]. [cited 2020 Jun 1]. Available from: https://backend.orbit.dtu.dk/ws/files/142116594/PhDThesis_jesne_tryk_nofront.pdf
National Mental Health Programme (NMHP) :: National Health Mission [Internet]. 2020 [cited 2020 Aug 4]. Available from: https://nhm.gov.in/index1.php?lang=1&level=2&sublinkid=1043&lid=359
Mental Healthcare Act, 2017. In: Wikipedia [Internet]. 2022 [cited 2022 Jul 26]. Available from: https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Mental_Healthcare_Act,_2017&oldid=1098027780
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2023 Sujitha P, Swetha NB
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Author/s retain the copyright of their article, with first publication rights granted to Medsci Publications.